PWM Controllers

[ad]The PWM (Pulse Width Modulator) DC Motor Controller is used for controlling amperage. Usually found in golf cars and RC cars, etc., they can also be used as part of your HHO system. It will regulate how much voltage is applied to the fuel cell and therefore control the amount of Hydrogen (bubbles) produced.

PWM or pulse width modulation controller of a power or signal involves modulation of its duty cycle that conveys information over a communication channel and controls the intensity of power sent to a load. PWM controllers use a square wave where the pulse width is modulated that result in the deviation of the standard value of the waveform.

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How PWM Controllers work

A PWM controller includes a standard current mode PWM and a Standard voltage mode PWM. But the advanced PWM covers the most common and high-tech SMPS applications. New PWM controllers that are manufactured nowadays enable smaller and lower cost power supply that delivers high efficiency starting from standby to full loading mode and thus reduces switching losses and minimizes EMI emissions.

[ad#Google Adsense - Middle]Bodies like the International Energy Authority have presented 1-watt plan for standby mode, EU’s EuP directive regarding energy–using products and most importantly, the United States Government’s energy star that has called for a minimum efficiency of 85% if power supplies to equipments such as servers, PC’s, general – purpose AC – DC chargers and adapters and consumer products.

Some key features of the latest PWM controllers are: -

• Universal input mains range
• High efficiency, almost more than 85%
• Advanced and standard solutions like forward, fly back, switch half – bridge, zero – voltage, single – stage PFC etc.
• Advanced standby performances
• Observance to the worldwide EMI regulations
• Observance to the worldwide energy programs like EPA2, Energy Star etc.
• Cost – effective solutions.

Three types of PWM controllers are possible. They are as follows: -

1. The pulse center is fixed at the center of time window and both the edges of the pulse are moved or shifted to expand or compress the width.
2. The lead edge is held and the tail edge modulated.
3. The tail edge is fixed and the other lead edge modulated.

Applications of Pulse Widge Modulators

The PWM controllers have varied applications in today’s world of electronics in addition to the PWM hho use. Some of them are mentioned below: -

Telecommunications: - In the field of telecommunications, the widths of the different pulses generally correspond to specific values of the data encoded at one end as well as decoded at the other. There are various lengths of the pulses and the information will be sent after regular intervals.

Power delivery: - PWM controller can be used to minimize the total quantity of power that is delivered to a load without any loss that normally incurs when power sources are suppressed by resistive means. This happens because the average power is proportional to duty cycle of the modulation. With an adequately high value of modulation rate, the passive electronic filters can make smooth the pulse train and get back the average analog waveform.

Voltage regulation: - A PWM controller is also used in the efficient voltage regulators. If voltage is switched to the load with an appropriately tuned duty cycle, a desired level of the voltage at the output can be approximated. The switching noise is filtered with the help of a capacitor and an inductor.